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Simple Test Could Detect Downs Syndrome

Simple Test Could Detect Down's Syndrome


Nov. 21, 2000 -- Doctors have shown they can detect Down's syndrome at an early stage in pregnancy simply by taking a tiny sample of the mother's blood.

The test could give parents an earlier indication of whether their baby has particular chromosomal abnormalities and eventually may do away with existing methods of detecting those abnormalities in the developing baby in the womb -- some of which carry a risk of miscarriage.

It involves looking at the mother's blood to try and find genetic material from the baby that can then be studied for abnormalities using existing laboratory testing techniques.

Researchers from Hong Kong who used the testing method say they hope it will lead to safer and more reliable ways of diagnosing fetal abnormalities.

Reporting their findings in The Lancet this week, they write: "Ultimately, prenatal diagnosis by this technique could reduce our reliance on invasive methods."

The vast majority of Down's syndrome cases are due to an accident of nature, a chromosomal abnormality that can happen to anyone, while a fewer number of cases are due to a genetic problem inherited from either the mother or father.

The most common way of diagnosing it at the moment is amniocentesis -- a test that involves inserting a fine needle through the abdominal wall to the uterus to remove a small quantity of the amniotic fluid. This fluid then undergoes biochemical and chromosomal analysis to spot certain abnormalities in the fetus.

The procedure normally is carried out between the 15th and 20th week of the pregnancy. It is often distressing for the mother because chromosome tests can take several weeks to process. This means that, if the mother opts for a termination because the results show there are defects, it has to be performed when she is well into her pregnancy.

Because of the risk of miscarriage, the test normally is only offered to women aged over 35, when the risk of Down's syndrome exceeds the risk of losing the baby because of the amniocentesis, or if there is a family history of abnormalities.

Some women are offered an alternative test -- known as chorionic villus sampling (CVS) -- which can be performed much earlier than an amniocentesis, from around 12 weeks, where a tiny quantity of tissue can be taken from the placenta. However, this too carries a risk of miscarriage.

The hope is the new technique will be easier and safer. Scientists at the Chinese University of Hong Kong identified three women who were carrying fetuses already known to have the most common form of Down's syndrome, and 10 others who were carrying babies with normal chromosomes.

At 12 weeks gestation, doctors took a tiny sample of each mother's blood. Then they took another sample at 15 weeks, after some of the women had undergone CVS testing. The reason for this was that CVS could introduce fetal cells into the mother's blood during the procedure. The scientists wanted to see if the same cells were already there before the pregnant women underwent any tests.

Using a technique called fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) -- where fluorescent markers are used to paint a picture of the part of the chromosome under investigation -- the researchers were able to pinpoint fragments of fetal DNA.

In all three Down's syndrome cases, they were able to detect the chromosomal abnormalities from the mother's blood early on in the pregnancy. After each woman had CVS testing, they checked the samples again and found the same defects.

"These results indicate that these cells were present in maternal plasma before the invasive procedure," the researchers write. "We have shown that prenatal detection can be accomplished by FISH analysis of fetal cells harvested from maternal plasma. The procedure is simple, and our data suggest future large-scale trials should be initiated to assess the diagnostic accuracy of this method."

Despite the fears of miscarriage, tests like amniocentesis and CVS are relatively safe, says Deborah Driscoll, MD, associate professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania's department of obstetrics and gynecology in Philadelphia. But because of the miscarriage fears, doctors are looking to make more options available. That is what's motivating investigators like the ones here to look for tests that are easier to do and come with lower risks than those commonly used today.

As for this research, "this is very preliminary and interesting, but it's still too premature if this will be clinically useful," says Driscoll, a geneticist and obstetrician at Penn.

"Clearly it is easier to do this test, but whether it will be as sensitive [as the standard tests today] remains to be seen," she tells WebMD.

Driscoll says that CVS and amniocentesis give more information than just the signals of Down's syndrome. Doctors get the number of chromosomes present and they can see the chromosomes' structure. Clinicians are not going to stop doing these standard tests and lose all that other important information in order to do a test for just one genetic abnormality. But the study should spark more research into finding more testing options for future patients, she says.

 

日期:2006年6月27日 - 來自[Pregnancy]欄目

Bedwetting Treatments Put to the Test

June 9, 2006 -- Bed alarms may be the most effective way to cure bedwetting, according to a new review of available bedwetting treatments.

But researchers Kelly Russell, BSc, and Darcie Kiddoo, MD, FRCSC, from the University of Alberta in Canada, say the device can be difficult to use, and treatment with the drug desmopressin may be an effective alternative.

The results appear in Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal.

From 13% to19% of boys, and 9% to 16% of girls over the age of 5 wet the bed during the night. Bedwetting resolves naturally in about 15% of those children each year, but researchers say 2% to 3% of adolescents continue to wet the bed and may require treatment.

Training First, Drugs Second, to Treat Bedwetting

In the study, researchers reviewed 230 studies on currently available treatments for bedwetting and compared their effectiveness in achieving 14 or more consecutive dry nights.

The results showed that training with a bed alarm was the most successful way to end bedwetting and prevent relapses after treatment ends. The alarm goes off when the child urinates. The goal is to get the child to associate the alarm with inhibiting urination so he will get up to use the toilet.

The alarms don't always wake the child, even though the rest of the house is roused. However, researchers say the treatment can still succeed if the family works together and wakes the child when the alarm goes off.

Similarly, researchers found behavioral treatments, like rewarding a child for a dry night, or taking him or her to the toilet late at night, may also work. But these methods can be very time-consuming and there was no evidence about their effectiveness.

Nonetheless, since there is no medical risk associated with behavioral treatments, researchers say they may be a reasonable first approach for parents before they seek professional help.

Desmopression Best Among Drug Options

Of the available bedwetting drug treatments, desmopression and tricyclic antidepressants were better than placebo at increasing the number of dry nights. But there was no evidence the benefit continues once treatment stops.

Researchers say there are concerns about overdosing with tricyclics. Therefore, desmopression is preferred.

Other available drug treatments, including indomethacin, diclofenac, and diazepam, may also reduce bedwetting, but researchers say they are potent drugs and should be considered only after other treatments have failed.


SOURCES: Russell, K. Evidence Based-Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, June 8, 2006; vol 1: pp 5-8. News release, John Wiley & Sons.

日期:2006年6月27日 - 來自[Parenting]欄目

奎肯(Queckens test)試驗有何具體的內容?

  (1)目的:因為頸椎病的椎間盤變性,彈性減少,而向四周突出,進入椎管的部分壓迫脊髓,或繼發的骨刺與突出的椎間盤組成混合物壓迫脊髓。對于有脊髓癥狀的患者,應用這種方法的目的是通過判斷蛛網膜下腔有無梗阻及梗阻程度,來了解脊髓是否受壓以及受壓程度,以作診斷參考。

  ①通暢者多為脊髓變性病變。

  ②部分梗阻者多為頸椎病。

  ③完全梗阻者多為腫瘤引起。

  (2)原理:因為腦脊液自側腦室、第三和第四腦室的脈絡叢及腦室膜的細胞產生,由側腦室經室間孔入第三腦室,通過導水管入第四腦室,再經正中孔及外側孔流入蛛網膜下腔(腦和脊髓的蛛網膜下腔連通),由蛛網膜吸收回流至靜脈,經頸內靜脈返回右心。正常人當壓迫頸靜脈時,腦脊液因為回流受到障礙,壓力立即上升,10秒以后達200~300mm水柱。解除壓迫后,壓力即迅速下降到原來的水平,所需時間也是10秒。由于腦和脊髓的蛛網膜下腔是相通的,故通過腰椎穿刺針接一個計壓管即可測出壓迫頸靜脈時腦脊液壓力的變化。

  (3)方法

  ①腰椎穿刺后,測出腦脊液的最初壓力并記錄。

  ②用指壓法或用血壓表氣囊止血帶壓迫法,壓迫頸靜脈以觀察壓力的變化及變化的速度。應用血壓表氣囊加壓時,其氣壓不能超過60毫米汞柱,每增加其壓力10毫米汞柱時,記錄一次腦脊液計壓數。應用指壓法是,每隔5~10秒鐘記錄腦脊液計壓數一次。壓迫頸靜脈后如果壓力不升則表示穿刺以上的部位有完全梗阻。如果解除壓迫,腦脊液壓力繼續上升,或不能及時回到原來的水平,則表示有部分梗阻。指壓法可分別壓迫左右頸內靜脈,或同時壓迫兩側頸內靜脈,以觀察其壓力變化情況。如頸后伸或向一側彎時有梗阻現象,對診斷頸椎病有特殊的意義。

日期:2006年4月16日 - 來自[頸椎病防治250問]欄目

第二節臨床、生化、細菌、免疫及細胞學檢驗(續表三)

續表(三)

(四)補體和循環免疫復合物檢驗

總補體溶血活性 CH50

S 75~160kU/L 1 75~160U/ml
補體旁路溶血活性 AP-CH50 S 0.8~1.55mg/L 1 80~1.55mg/dl
補體C3C3complement S 0.8~1.6g/L 0.01 10~40mg/dl
補體C4C4complement S 0.1~0.4g/L 0.01 20~50mg/dl
補體B因子Factor B complement BF S 0.2~0.5g/L 0.01  
C3裂解產物C3 split product C3SP S   - 同左
循環免疫復合物Circulating immunocomplex,CIC S   - 同左
(五)細胞免疫功能檢驗

總E花環試驗Total Erosette

B >50% - 同左
EAC花環試驗 EAC-R B 20~30% - 同左
B淋巴細胞Fc受體測定 B 8.5±2.8% - 同左
T淋巴細胞轉化試驗 TLT B 60±7.6%   同左
白細胞吞噬功能試驗 B 約50%   同左
白細胞殺菌功能試驗 B 15min

 45min

 90min

15~58%

48~97%

81~99%

  同左
淋巴細胞細胞毒試驗Lymphocytotoxicity assay B <10%   同左
硝基四氮唑藍還原試驗 B <10%   同左
混合淋巴細胞培養轉化率測定 B <10%   同左
抗肝細胞膜特異性脂蛋白測定 白細胞趨化性測定 溶血空斑形成試驗
巨噬細胞移動抑制試驗MIF K細胞檢查 淋巴細胞毒交叉配合試驗
白細胞介素-1,-2測定Interleukin-1,-2 NK細胞檢查 白細胞移動抑制試驗LIF
(六)自身抗體檢驗

類風濕因子 RF <60IU/ml

單鏈DNA抗體 <15U/ml 抗胃壁細胞抗體 陰性
抗核抗體 ANA <1:160IFA 雙鏈DNA抗體   抗甲狀腺球蛋白抗體
抗精子抗體 抗線粒體抗體 陰性 抗甲狀腺微粒體抗體
抗心肌抗體 抗平滑肌抗體 陰性 可提取核抗原抗體 抗ENA
(七)非特異性免疫功能檢驗        
(八)激素及藥物的免疫檢驗 參見第 頁

甘膽酸

  1.17±0.75mg/L 0.01 117±75μg/dl
透明質酸(玻璃酸)Hyaloronic acid   54.6±26.79μg/L 1 54.6±26.79ng/ml
甘氨膽酸Glycocholic acid   0.66~3.80nmol/L 1 0.66~3.80μmol/ml
鵝去氧膽酸Chendeoxycholate        
地高辛Digoxin 治療

中毒

1.9~2.6nmol/L

>3.2nmol/L

1.281

1.281

1.5~2.0ng/ml

>2.5ng/ml

苯巴比妥Phendbarbital 治療 85~215μmol/L 43.06 2~5mg/dl
苯妥英鈉Phenytoin sodium 治療 40~80μmol/L 3.964 10~20ng/dl
丙酮酸Pyruvic acid P 0.03~0.10mmol/L 10 0.3~0.9ng/dl
四、臨床微生物學檢驗

(一)各種標本的涂片檢驗

  無致病菌 - 同左
(二)各種標本的培養檢驗   無致病菌 -  
(三)微生物的其他檢驗、動物接種   無致病菌 -  
五、臨床血液學檢驗

(一)血液一般常用檢驗 

血紅蛋白Hemoglobin Hb

初生兒

兒童

成人 男

  女

160~190g/L

120~140g/L

120~160g/L

110~150g/L

10

10

10

10

16~19g/dl

12~4g/dl

12~16g/dl

11~15g/dl

紅細胞計數 RBC count 初生2周內

 1~15歲

 成人 男

  女

5.1~5.66×1012/L

4.6~4.7×1012/L

4.3~5.4×1012/L

3.8~4.8×1012/L

106

106

106

106

510~566萬/μl

460~470萬/μl

430~540萬/μl

380~480萬/μl

白細胞計數 WBC count   4~10×109/L 106 4000~10000/μl
白細胞分類計數 WBC-DC 末梢血 3~5%中性帶狀核

54~62%中性分葉核

1~3%嗜酸粒細胞

0~1%嗜堿粒細胞

25~33%淋巴細胞

3~7%單核細胞

-

-

-

-

-

-

同左

同左

同左

同左

同左

同左

嗜酸粒細胞計數Eosinophil count   50~350×106/L 1 50~350/μl
血小板計數Blood platelet count Pt,PT   100~300×109/L 1 10萬~30萬/μl
網織紅細胞計數Retculocyte count REC   0.5~1.5%

<0.3%

-

-

同左

同左

點彩紅細胞計數Stipping erythrocyte count   0~0.8% - 同左
變性珠蛋白小體Heinz body MCT 41~53% - 同左
紅細胞比容Hematocrit 36~46% - 同左
紅細胞平均體積 MCV   80~100fL 1 80~100μm3
紅細胞平均血紅蛋白量 MCH   26~34pg 1 26~34μμug
紅細胞平均血紅蛋白濃度 MCHC   310~370g/L 10 31~37%
紅細胞沉降率Erythrocyte sedimentation ESR B Westergren     

  男

  女

0~14mm/h

0~20mm/h

-

-

同左

同左

血塊收縮時間Clot retraction time CRT   1h后開始,24h后結束 - 同左
出血時間Bleeding time BT Duke 1~3min - 同左
血凝時間Clotting time CT   5~8min - 同左
凝血酶原時間Prothrombin time PTT 一步法Quick 11~15s - 同左
凝血酶原消耗試驗Prothrombin consamption PTCT   >30s - 同左
凝血酶時間Thrombin time TT   16~18s - 同左
游離肝素時間Free heparin time FHT P加甲苯胺藍 TT縮短>5s -

-

同左

同左

PB-TGT4~6min內基質血漿凝固時間為9~11s
凝血活酶生成試驗Thromboplastin generation test TGT STGT10~14s >15異常 - 同左
第Ⅷ因子缺乏過篩試驗

Factor ⅩⅢdeficiency screening test

P Ⅷ:C102.96 ±26.97%

Ⅸ:C98.08 ±30.37%

-

-

同左

同左

血漿比重Plasm specific gravity   1.024~1.029 - 同左
(二)骨髓檢驗

骨髓各成形物比積

紅細胞層45~54%,血漿層39.0~48.5%,有核細胞層4~6%,脂肪層0.5~3%
骨髓有核細胞計數   10~180×109/L 109 1萬~18萬/μl
巨核細胞計數   25~75×109/L - 7~35個/全片
骨髓涂片細胞形態學檢查(參見第632頁表1)        
(三)溶血性貧血檢驗

結合珠蛋白Haptoglobin

  830~2670mg/L 10 83~267mg/dl
紅細胞滲透脆性試驗 開始溶血 5.0g/L NaCl液 - 0.5%NaCl液
Erythrocyte osmotic –fragility test 完全溶血 3.0g/L NaCl液 - 0.3%NaCl液
自身溶血試驗Autohemolysis test 不加糖24h

加糖或ATP

<45%

<0.4%

-

-

同左

同左

熱溶血試驗Warm hemolysis test   陰性 - 陰性
冷溶血試驗Cold hemolysis test

冷凝集試驗 Cold agglutinin test

  陰性

0~1:10

-

-

陰性

陰性

蔗糖溶血試驗Sucrose hemolysis test 定性

定量 溶血率

陰性

<5%

-

-

陰性

陰性

酸溶血試驗Ham’s test   陰性 - 陰性
酸化溶血試驗Acidified serum lysis test 溶血率 <5% - 陰性
血液熱不穩定試驗Heat instability test   <5% - 陰性
不穩定血紅蛋白檢查Unstable hemoglobin 加熱法 <5%(異丙醇法 陰性) - 陰性
血紅蛋白溶解度試驗Hemoglobin solubility test   88~100(平均94.4)% - 陰性
高鐵血紅蛋白還原試驗Methemoglobin reduction test 還原率 >75%(定性陰性) - 陰性
G6PD缺陷篩選試驗G6PD deficiency screening test   陰性 - 陰性
紅細胞G6PD測定Erythrocyte G6PD assay   520~1040U/nmolHb 64.5 7.9~16.3U/gHb
抗人球蛋白試驗Antiglobulin test 直接法間接法 均陰性 - 同左
HbF酸洗脫試驗HbF acid elution test Rbc 新生兒

成人

2/3

<1%

-

-

同左

同左

還原型谷胱甘肽測定Reduced gluta-thione test   0.29~0.56mol/molHb 0.0645 4.49~8.65μmol/gHb
谷胱甘肽穩定試驗Glutathione stability test GSH 減少不>20% - 同左
(四)出血與凝血障礙檢驗

阿司匹林耐量試驗Aspirin tolerance test ATT

B 眼藥后2.4h 出血時間延長≤3min -  
血小板壽命測定Platelet life span assay B 同位素法

 丙二醛法

8~12h

7~15h

-

-

同左

同左

血小板表面相關抗體 PA BLT PAIgG

PAIgM

PAIgA

PAC3

<7.8ng/106PLT

<2.2ng/106PLT

<1.7ng/106PLT

<2.2ng/106PLT

-

-

-

-

同左

同左

同左

同左

血小板粘附功能 BLT 男 (35±5)%    
Platelet adhesiveness test PAdT (39±5)%    
血小板第3因子有效性試驗 PF3QT BLT 白陶土法 第一組比第二組延長≤5s - 同左
血小板第4因子試驗Platelet factor 4 test P <10μg/L - 同左
β血栓球蛋白試驗Thromboglobulin test P 15~70%μg/L - 同左
活化凝血時間測定Activated clotting time  ACT B 70~100s - 同左
活化凝血時間測定Activated clotting time  ACT B 70~100s - 同左
復鈣時間測定Recalcification test P 1.5~3.0min - 同左
復鈣交叉試驗Cross Pecalcification test P 延長的復鈣時間不能被等量正常血漿糾正者提示有抗敏物質
白陶土部分凝血活酶時間測定KPTT P 35~45s - 同左
簡易凝血活酶生成試驗 STGT P火箭電泳法

 RIA

94±33%

90±17%

-

-

同左

同左

肝促凝血酶原激酶試驗Hepaplastin test P 91±14% - 同左
蝰蛇蛇毒時間測定Russell’s Viper venon time test P 12~17s - 同左
蝰蛇毒磷脂凝固時間Venon Phaspholipid Coag.test P 7~12.5s - 同左
蝰蛇毒復鈣時間Venon recalcificatione time test P 19.2±2.8s - 同左
血漿因子Ⅴ活動度測定Foctor Ⅴactivity test P 一期法 102.4±37.9   同左
血漿因子Ⅶ活動度測定Foctor Ⅶastivity test P 一期法 104±19.2   同左
血漿因子ⅩⅢ活性測定FoctorⅩⅢastiviity test P 半定量法 24h內凝塊不溶解   同左
血漿因子ⅩⅢ測定的篩選試驗FactorⅩⅢsubunit test P 5mol/L尿素液內經24h血凝塊不溶解   同左
血漿因子ⅩⅢα與β亞基抗原測定Factor ⅩⅢsubunit α&βantigen test P ⅩⅢαAg

 ⅩⅢβAg

100.26±12.86%

98.22±12.49%

  同左

同左

優球蛋白溶解時間Euglobulin clot lysis time PP 加酶法

  加鈣法

124±24min

>120min

  同左

同左

單碘乙酸耐量試驗 P 總積分 >45分   同左
纖溶活性測定Fibrinolytic activity test P     同左
纖溶酶原測定 Plasminogen test P免疫擴散法

發色底物法

286±56mg/L

活性94.8±8.95%

  同左

同左

纖溶酶原測定Plasmin test P      
魚精蛋白副凝時間Protamine paracoagutation time   陰性    
連續凝血酶時間Serial thrombin time   18~38s    
葡萄球菌猬集試驗Staph.clumping test SCT   陰性    
纖維蛋白原降解產物Fibrinogen degrad prod FDP   <10mg/L   <10μg/ml
抗凝血酶Ⅲ抗原測定Antithrombin ⅢAg AT-Ⅲ.Ag   0.029±0.006g/L    
抗凝血酶Ⅲ活性測定 AT-Ⅲ.A   90.3±26.4%    
抗凝血酶Ⅲ顯色法測定 AT-Ⅲ.C   70~130%    
α2巨球蛋白測定α2Macroglobulinα2M

1.30~3.50g/L

1.75~4.20g/L

0.01

0.01

130~350mg/dl

175~420mg/dl

(五)其他特殊檢驗

骨髓細胞粒:巨噬細胞系祖細胞培養CFU-GM

  300~1063    
骨髓細胞紅系祖細胞培養BFU-E CFU-E        
血液紅細胞容量測定Red cell volume

0.020~0.036g/L

0.019~0.031g/L

-

-

20~36mg/kg

19~31mg/kg

全血容量Total blood volume   60~80ml/kg - 同左
紅細胞壽命測定Red cell life span assay 凝集反應法

同位素法

平均約120d

110~130

  同左

同左

比粘度測定Viscosity assay B毛細玻管法

  男

  女

S

3.43~5.07

3.01~4.29

1.50~1.72

  同左

同左

同左

血液淋巴細胞毒試驗 形態學檢查與對照組比較p>0.05
血漿鐵半清除時間 紅細胞鐵利用率測定 血液白細胞凝試驗
  紅細胞鐵轉化率測定 血液白細胞抗人球蛋白消耗試驗
日期:2006年1月15日 - 來自[病例示范]欄目

英漢統計名詞對照

英漢統計名詞對照

A

abscissa 橫坐標
absence rate 缺勤率
absolute number 絕對數
absolute value 絕對值
accident error 偶然誤差
accumulated frequency 累積頻數
alternative hypothesis 備擇假設
analysis of data 分析資料
analysis of variance(ANOVA) 方差分析
arith-log paper 算術對數紙
arithmetic mean 算術均數
assumed mean 假定均數
arithmetic weighted mean 加權算術均數
asymmetry coefficient 偏度系數
average 平均數
average deviation 平均差

B

bar chart 直條圖、條圖
bias 偏性
binomial distribution 二項分布
biometrics 生物統計學
bivariate normal population 雙變量正態總體

C

cartogram 統計圖
case fatality rate(or case mortality) 病死率
census 普查
chi-sguare(X2) test 卡方檢驗
central tendency 集中趨勢
class interval 組距
classification 分組、分類
cluster sampling 整群抽樣
coefficient of correlation 相關系數
coefficient of regression 回歸系數
coefficient of variability(or coefficieut of variation) 變異系數
collection of data 收集資料
column 列(欄)
combinative table 組合表
combined standard deviation 合并標準差
combined variance(or poolled variance) 合并方差
complete survey 全面調查
completely correlation 完全相關
completely random design 完全隨機設計
confidence interval 可信區間,置信區間
confidence level 可信水平,置信水平
confidence limit 可信限,置信限
constituent ratio 構成比,結構相對數
continuity 連續性
control 對照
control group 對照組
coordinate 坐標
correction for continuity 連續性校正
correction for grouping 歸組校正
correction number 校正數
correction value 校正值
correlation 相關,聯系
correlation analysis 相關分析
correlation coefficient 相關系數
critical value 臨界值
cumulative frequency 累積頻率

D

data 資料
degree of confidence 可信度,置信度
degree of dispersion 離散程度
degree of freedom 自由度
degree of variation 變異度
dependent variable 應變量
design of experiment 實驗設計
deviation from the mean 離均差
diagnose accordance rate 診斷符合率
difference with significance 差別不顯著
difference with significance 差別顯著
discrete variable 離散變量
dispersion tendency 離中趨勢
distribution 分布、分配

E

effective rate 有效率
eigenvalue 特征值
enumeration data 計數資料
equation of linear regression 線性回歸方程
error 誤差
error of replication 重復誤差
error of type II Ⅱ型錯誤,第二類誤差
error of type I Ⅰ型錯誤,第一類誤差
estimate value 估計值
event 事件
experiment design 實驗設計
experiment error 實驗誤差
experimental group 實驗組
extreme value 極值

F

fatality rate 病死率
field survey 現場調查
fourfold table 四格表
freguency 頻數
freguency distribution 頻數分布

G

Gaussian curve 高斯曲線
geometric mean 幾何均數
grouped data 分組資料

H

histogram 直方圖
homogeneity of variance 方差齊性
homogeneity test of variances 方差齊性檢驗
hypothesis test 假設檢驗
hypothetical universe 假設總體

I

incidence rate 發病率
incomplete survey 非全面調檢
indepindent variable 自變量
indivedual difference 個體差異
infection rate 感染率
inferior limit 下限
initial data 原始數據
inspection of data 檢查資料
intercept 截距
interpolation method 內插法
interval estimation 區間估計
inverse correlation 負相關

K

kurtosis coefficient 峰度系數

L

latin sguare design 拉丁方設計
least significant difference 最小顯著差數
least square method 最小平方法,最小乘法
leptokurtic distribution 尖峭態分布
leptokurtosis 峰態,峭度
linear chart 線圖
linear correlation 直線相關
linear regression 直線回歸
linear regression eguation 直線回歸方程
link relative 環比
logarithmic normal distribution 對數正態分布
logarithmic scale 對數尺度
lognormal distribution 對數正態分布
lower limit 下限

M

matched pair design 配對設計
mathematical statistics 數理統計(學)
maximum value 極大值
mean 均值
mean of population 總體均數
mean square 均方
mean variance 均方,方差
measurement data 講量資料
median 中位數
medical statistics 醫學統計學
mesokurtosis 正態峰
method of least squares 最小平方法,最小乘法
method of grouping 分組法
method of percentiles 百分位數法
mid-value of class 組中值
minimum value 極小值
mode 眾數
moment 動差,矩
morbidity 患病率
mortality 死亡率

N

natality 出生率
natural logarithm 自然對數
negative correlation 負相關
negative skewness 負偏志
no correlation 無相關
non-linear correlation 非線性相關
non-parametric statistics 非參數統計
normal curve 正態曲線
normal deviate 正態離差
normal distribution 正態分布
normal population 正態總體
normal probability curve 正態概率曲線
normal range 正常范圍
normal value 正常值
normal kurtosis 正態峰
normality test 正態性檢驗
nosometry 患病率
null hypothesis 無效假設,檢驗假設

O

observed unit 觀察單位
observed value 觀察值
one-sided test 單測檢驗
one-tailed test 單尾檢驗
order statistic 順序統計量
ordinal number 秩號
ordinate 縱坐標

P

pairing data 配對資料
parameter 參數
percent 百分率
percentage 百分數,百分率
percentage bar chart 百分條圖
percentile 百分位數
pie diagram 園圖
placebo 安慰劑
planning of survey 調查計劃
point estimation 點估計
population 總體,人口
population mean 總體均數
population rate 總體率
population variance 總體方差
positive correlation 正相關
positive skewness 正偏態
power of a test 把握度,檢驗效能
prevalence rate 患病率
probability 概率,機率
probability error 偶然誤差
proportion 比,比率
prospective study 前瞻研究
prospective survey 前瞻調查
public health statistics 衛生統計學

Q

quality eontrol 質量控制
quartile 四分位數

R

random 隨機
random digits 隨機數字
random error 隨機誤差
random numbers table 隨機數目表
random sample 隨機樣本
random sampling 隨機抽樣
random variable 隨機變量
randomization 隨機化
randomized blocks 隨機區組,隨機單位組
randomized blocks analysis of variance 隨機單位組方差分析
randomized blocks design 隨機單位組設計
randomness 隨機性
range 極差、全距
range of normal values 正常值范圍
rank 秩,秩次,等級
rank correlation 等級相關
rank correlation coefficent 等級相關系數
rank-sum test 秩和檢驗
rank test 秩(和)檢驗
ranked data 等級資料
rate
ratio
recovery rate 治愈率
registration 登記
regression 回歸
regression analysis 回歸分析
regression coefficient 回歸系數
regression eguation 回歸方程
relative number 相對數
relative ratio 比較相對數
relative ratio with fixed base 定基比
remainder error 剩余誤差
replication 重復
retrospective survey 回顧調查
Ridit analysis 參照單位分析
Ridit value 參照單位值

S

sample 樣本
sample average 樣本均數
sample size 樣本含量
sampling 抽樣
sampling error 抽樣誤差
sampling statistics 樣本統計量
sampling survay 抽樣調查
scaller diagram 散點圖
schedule of survey 調查表
semi-logarithmic chart 半對數線圖
semi-measursement data 半計量資料
semi-guartile range 四分位數間距
sensitivity 靈敏度
sex ratio 性比例
sign test 符號檢驗
significance 顯著性,意義
significance level 顯著性水平
significance test 顯著性檢驗
significant difference 差別顯著
simple random sampling 單純隨機抽樣
simple table 簡單表
size of sample 樣本含量
skewness 偏態
slope 斜率
sorting data 整理資料
sorting table 整理表
sources of variation 變異來源
square deviation 方差
standard deviation(SD) 標準差
standard error (SE) 標準誤
standard error of estimate 標準估計誤差
standard error of the mean 均數的標準誤
standardization 標準化
standardized rate 標化率
standardized normal distribution 標準正態分布
statistic 統計量
statistics 統計學
statistical induction 統計圖
statistical inference 統計歸納
statistical map 統計推斷
statistical method 統計地圖
statistical survey 統計方法
statistical table 統計調查
statistical test 統計表
statistical treatment 統計檢驗
stratified sampling 統計處理
stochastic variable 分層抽樣
sum of cross products of 隨機變量
deviation from mean 離均差積和
sum of ranks 秩和
sum of sguares of deviation from mean 離均差平方和
superior limit 上限
survival rate 生存率
symmetry 對稱(性)
systematic error 系統誤差
systematic sampling 機械抽樣

T

t-distribution t分布
t-test t檢驗
tabulation method 劃記法
test of normality 正態性檢驗
test of one-sided 單側檢驗
test of one-tailed 單尾檢驗
test of significance 顯著性檢驗
test of two-sided 雙側檢驗
test of two-tailed 雙尾檢驗
theoretical frequency 理論頻數
theoretical number 理論數
treatment 處理
treatment factor 處理因素
treatment of date 數據處理
two-factor analysis of variance 雙因素方差分析
two-sided test 雙側檢驗
two-tailed test 雙尾檢驗
type I error 第一類誤差
type II error 第二類誤差
typical survey 典型調查

U

u test u檢驗
universe 總體,全域
ungrouped data 未分組資料
upper limit 上限

V

variable 變量
variance 方差,均方
variance analysis 方差分析
variance ratio 方差比
variate 變量
variation coefficient 變異系數
velocity of development 發展速度
velocity of increase 增長速度

W

weight 權數
weighted mean 加權均數

Z

zero correlation 零相關
日期:2006年1月13日 - 來自[醫學統計學]欄目
共 21 頁,當前第 21 頁 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 :


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